“Time may be the fire we burn in.” And though we may be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have made an effort to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance gets to be a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The inner environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is really a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe inside the eons ahead.
For individuals who aim to discover truths regarding the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is a concern of significant proportions. Scientists are usually thinking about very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions from the life of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties can be exploited is similar to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as one answer to the issue in the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature where all metabolic activity concerns a halt, scientists can seclude moments soon enough, returning over and over to look into that instant of all time.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics has become an essential industry which enables customized products for pretty much every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your numerous products to select from knowledge of which ones are handiest may elude the average consumer. In order to provide an introduction to the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled in the following paragraphs.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those things that many people never think about until they quit working. Made to run for several years without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels of the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch over the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists stay away from the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory during the day whenever it did. A career’s worth of samples might be lost in a single afternoon– several years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the ground. Although this type of scenario looms ominously within the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for the entire day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to ensure power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Even though the gas industry has utilized this system for many years, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is capable to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, as well as the cool gas passes back the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. One or more liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated in the cycle in order that the expansion of the liquid can be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is made for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The machine allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and because it has an internal power source it can be used for the transportation of samples from storage facility to examine laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“Like a user you wish to understand the minimum temperature and exactly how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes sure that uniform temperatures are already maintained during the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for longer periods. Locking lids are supplied so that you can protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a great deal of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The high temperature-conducting quality of this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
Consistent with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and permit on-site recycling. In addition, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every 24 hours, turning it well so that the capillary tubing is going to be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. includes a long tradition of earning ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In reality, with forty years of experience under its belt, So-Low is probably the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the business. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was one of the primary to use Dupont Suva 95, the new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco-friendly refrigerants, So-Low has developed a revolutionary compressor that is certainly designed just for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens as a result of -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an alternative to the standard cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide comfortable access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, plus a storage system adjusts to support a variety of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is among the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with over fifty years of experience in the marketplace. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions for the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it has a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo has been manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for more than twenty years, beginning with its manufacture of the initial -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to offer a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of several largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use within preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The phrase dewar, originally placed on double walled glass vacuum flasks, has become applied to a variety of insulated vessels created for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the ground or sit on tabletops where samples can easily be accessed. Because of the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as twelve months without getting regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The typical thermal wall consists of an aluminum or steel sandwich loaded with polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this sort of extent that many companies build custom dewars to acquire. Some of these companies and their goods are reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Naturally, animal breeders are only a small amount of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing portion of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to build up biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment for any full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that period MVE has released the complete brand of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling up to 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells which can be stored at -125°C but could become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also useful for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in the liquid medium, such as contaminated-blood bags which are liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the United States and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one way his company has were able to remain competitive is by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is because they may be customized.
One of Quantum Technology’s most popular products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries outside The United States and Europe, the fee for purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is one of the main reasons why Quantum Technology makes a reliable two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained from the system. The helium from this refrigerator is reliquified to use repeatedly.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, provides a Thermo-Flask line of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models is accessible having a 24-month warranty. Other special highlights of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to provide coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by a number of companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems can be purchased in five sizes and present features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be bought in four sizes and possess capacities as high as 6,000 vials. In addition to a few of the standard features found in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks having a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, and an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a variety of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are manufactured from borosilicate glass included in a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model carries a vented polyethylene stopper to lessen evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars may also be jacketed in aluminum casing for added safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are designed for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of two weeks. Every one of these units come equipped with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Alternatives for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps to make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to save large volumes of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Every one of these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the quantity of vials that may be safely arranged right into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials might be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are some of the mostly used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out 1 day. Then it is time to look shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the first that concerns the challenge of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials advise that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents in the internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials are more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in an effort to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and the debate goes on.
Another consideration that comes into mind when selecting cryogenic tubes is definitely the material from where they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which can negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes may also be contaminated with releasing fluids throughout the molding process. However, releasing fluids can be removed with all the good care, and several brands like Axygen are switching to new polished molds which do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but can also be at the mercy of fracture because of microchannels which could form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or even violent explosions. Plastic vials are also susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the potential for explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has additionally been an issue of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the inner pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas inside the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid from the lids of countless non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is usually preferred as the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is also used, it possesses a tendency to reduce its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a difficulty which was demonstrated once the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as little as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come provided with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip along with a silicon washer. A particular ridge on each cap makes handling easier, leading to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® brand of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, along with other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be found in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes and are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, that may be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested within a vacuum chamber to be sure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to use in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube by having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of several outstanding attributes of this tube is that it is utterly transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which are silicone gasketed and guaranteed to use within a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and they are certified to get sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof within a microcentrifuge approximately 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the corporation warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase could lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for up to every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, they have developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that could be hermetically sealed. They are suitable for your preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction makes them exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored by using a wide range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes some polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come designed with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and easy-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features can be found with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added only at the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions like iron, chromium, or nickel which are typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed in a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports have the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system comes with a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned inside the centrifuge rotor to be re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation which come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colors. An individual has a choice of choosing from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and the polypropylene material from where these are constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures and also temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. One of many areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its collection of products is the need for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes can be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and all of its O-ring sealed tubes is sterilized.
Storage inventory systems can be a critical element of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they can undergo changes which make them hard to keep trace. Labels may become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes may be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. One of the more popular options for containing samples may be the canister and cane. Using this technique, several vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft that is certainly submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer method is usually preferred. Although drawer systems usually expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation through the freezer, as well as decreases the researcher’s being exposed to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are created to optimize the quantity of space for storage afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration is really a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to organize up to 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Intended for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and colors to put almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to be viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in a few models to fit tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers may be installed in any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise some plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are keyed in order to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless retainer systems works with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for quick retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes to have an increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is one of the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. The truth is, several of its products are sold as standard accessories with some of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from steel and include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks to be used in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today would be the same ones that will be used for many years. A purchase made today may last for 10 years. Essentially, researchers buying Gas Cylinder are not just buying products on their own, they are buying for their successors. The individual should consider what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated as a result of improper storage. A little money which had been saved at the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers may not appear to be the best downside when valuable samples are lost. Regardless of the safeguards built-in to most of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these items important. Appointing a lasting position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety of the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the best ways to assure the integrity of those samples.