The appropriate use of diamond blades is essential to providing economical solutions for that construction industry. The Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association, which can be focused on the advancement and professionalism of concrete cutting operators, offers operators the instruments and skills essential to understand and use diamond blades for optimal performance. CSDA accomplishes this goal through providing introductory and advanced training programs for operators with hands-on learning flat sawing, wall sawing, core drilling, wire sawing and hand sawing. Additionally they offer a series of safety and training videos in addition to a safety handbook in support with their effort to educate sawing and drilling operators. This article will discuss the use of diamond tools, primarily saw blades, and supply recommendations for their cost-effective use.
Diamond is well recognized since the hardest substance known to man. One would believe that an operator of cut to length machine could make use of the hardness characteristics of diamond to maximum advantage, i.e. the harder the more effective. In reality, this is simply not always true. Whether or not the operator is cutting or drilling concrete, stone, masonry or asphalt, the diamonds must wear so that you can maximize the performance of your cutting tool. This short article will examine the role diamond plays in cutting tools and exactly how an operator may use analytical methods to maximize the application of the diamond cutting tools thereby increasing productivity and maximizing the lifestyle of your tool.
Diamond crystals could be synthetically grown in numerous types of qualities, shapes and sizes. Synthetic diamond has replaced natural diamond in almost all construction applications for this reason capability to tailor-make the diamond for that specific application. Diamond is grown with smooth crystal faces in the cubo-octahedral shape as well as the color is normally from light yellow to medium yellow-green. Diamond is also grown to a specific toughness, which generally increases since the crystal size decreases. The dimensions of the diamond crystals, known as mesh size, determines the number of diamond cutting points exposed on the surface of a saw blade. Generally speaking, larger mesh size diamond can be used for cutting softer materials while smaller mesh size diamond can be used for cutting harder materials. However, there are numerous interrelated things to consider and they general guidelines might not always apply.
The volume of crystals per volume, or diamond concentration, also affects the cutting performance of your diamond tool. Diamond concentration, commonly referred to as CON, is really a way of measuring the volume of diamond contained in a segment in relation to volume. A standard reference point is 100 CON, which equals 72 carats per cubic inch. Diamond concentration for construction tools is normally in the range of 15-50 CON. A 32 CON means the tool has 23 carats per cubic inch, or about 4 carats per segment. Increasing the diamond concentration by supplying more cutting points will make the bond act harder whilst increasing diamond tool life. Optimum performance can be achieved once the diamond tool manufacturer utilizes her or his experience and analytical capabilities to balance diamond concentration as well as other factors to obtain optimum performance to the cutting operator.
Diamond Shape & Size
Diamond shapes may differ from tough blocky cubo-octahedral crystals (Figure 1) to more friable crystals with less well-defined geometry (Figure 2). Diamond crystals with blocky shapes and sharp edges are often better suited for stone and construction applications. The blocky shape provides greater resistance to fracturing, and therefore provides the maximum amount of cutting points and minimum surface contact. This has a direct impact inside a lower horsepower necessity for the EI core cutting machine and to increase the life to the tool. Lower grade diamond is cheaper and usually has more irregularly shaped and angular crystals which is more best for less severe applications.
Synthetic diamond can be grown in a number of mesh sizes to match the specified application. Mesh sizes are typically in the plethora of 20 to 50 U.S. Mesh (840 to 297 microns) in construction applications. The dimensions of the diamond crystals, and also the concentration, determines the quantity of diamond that will be exposed on top of the cutting surface of the segments about the blade. The exposure, or height, of diamond protrusion (Figure 3) influences the depth of cut of each and every crystal, and subsequently, the opportunity material removal rate. Larger diamond crystals and greater diamond protrusion will result in a potentially faster material removal rate if you find enough horsepower available. Typically, when cutting softer materials, larger diamond crystals are utilized, and once cutting harder materials, smaller crystals are utilized.
The diamond mesh size within a cutting tool also directly relates to the amount of crystals per carat as well as the free cutting capability of the diamond tool. The smaller the mesh size, the greater the diamond crystals, while larger mesh size means smaller diamond. A 30/40 Mesh blocky diamond has about 660 crystals per carat, while a 40/50 Mesh diamond can have 1,700 crystals per carat.
Specifying the appropriate mesh dimensions are the task from the diamond tool manufacturer. Producing the best amount of cutting points can increase the lifetime of the tool and minimize the device power requirements. As one example, a diamond tool manufacturer may choose to make use of a finer mesh size to increase the number of cutting crystals with a low concentration tool which improves tool life and power requirements.
Diamond Impact Strength
All diamond is not exactly the same, and this is especially valid for the strength of diamonds found in construction applications. The capacity of any diamond to withstand a positive change load is typically called diamond impact strength. Other diamond-related factors, for example crystal shape, size, inclusions as well as the distribution of these crystal properties, be a factor in the impact strength at the same time.
Impact strength can be measured and is also known as Toughness Index (TI). In addition, crystals are also exposed to extremely high temperatures during manufacturing and often in the cutting process. Thermal Toughness Index (TTI) may be the way of measuring the power of your diamond crystal to resist thermal cycling. Subjecting the diamond crystals to high temperature, allowing them to go back to room temperature, and after that measuring the change in toughness makes this measurement useful to a diamond tool manufacturer.
The company must select the best diamond according to previous experience or input through the operator in the field. This decision is located, to some extent, around the tool’s design, bond properties, material to be cut and Straight core cutting machine. These factors should be balanced by selecting diamond grade and concentration that will supply the operator with optimum performance at the suitable cost.
Generally, a larger impact strength is essential for additional demanding, harder-to-cut materials. However, always using higher impact strength diamond that may be more expensive will not always help the operator. It may possibly not improve, and may even degrade tool performance.
A diamond saw blade is made up of a circular steel disk with segments containing the diamond that are affixed to the outer perimeter of the blade (Figure 4). The diamonds are kept in place through the segment, which is actually a specially formulated mix of metal bond powders and diamond, that were pressed and heated inside a sintering press from the manufacturer. The diamond and bond are tailor-designed to the precise cutting application. The exposed diamonds on the surface of your segment do the cutting. A diamond blade cuts inside a manner much like how sand paper cuts wood. Since the blade cuts, bond tails are formed dexqpky76 trail behind each diamond (Figure 5). This bond tail provides mechanical support for your diamond crystal. Since the blade rotates with the material, the diamonds chip away with the material being cut (Figure 6).
The ideal life of a diamond starts as a whole crystal that becomes exposed throughout the segment bond matrix. Since the blade starts to cut, a little wear-flat develops along with a bond tail develops behind the diamond. Eventually, small microfractures develop, nevertheless the diamond is still cutting well. Then a diamond actually starts to macrofracture, and finally crushes (Figure 7). Here is the last stage of a diamond before it experiences a popout, the location where the diamond quite literally pops out of the bond. The blade consistently work as its cutting action is bought out by the next layer of diamonds which are interspersed through the segment.
The metal bond matrix, which may be manufactured from iron, cobalt, nickel, bronze or another metals in several combinations, is designed to wear away after many revolutions in the blade. Its wear rate is designed in order that it will wear for a price that can provide maximum retention of the diamond crystals and protrusion through the matrix so that they can cut.
The diamond and bond come together and it is approximately the manufacturer to provide the very best combination dependant on input from the cutting contractor given specific cutting requirements. Critical factors for both sides to manage will be the bond system, material to be cut and machine parameters. A combination of diamond and bond accomplishes a variety of critical functions.